In 1993 and 1995, the Oslo Accords represented a breakthrough, promising Palestinians their own state in five years — that is, until Palestinian strongman Yasser Arafat began the intifadas, uprisings that were intended to show Israelis the futility of ever hoping for peace.
In 2000, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak went even further, returning 97% of the West Bank and Gaza and offering East Jerusalem for a Palestinian capital.
Did peace come? No. Another intifada did, as Palestinians in Gaza rained rockets on Israeli civilian targets.
In 2005, Israel unilaterally left Gaza and transferred administration of the West Bank to the Palestinians. Peace at last? Nope. Another intifada and more rockets.